Vertigo is caused due to a mismatch between your sensory inputs that are responsible for maintaining posture. It is usually classified into two types according to the area of dysfunction in vestibular pathway, namely
Patients can have vertical and non-fatigable or continuous nystagmus in this type of vertigo. Other cranial nerve abnormalities, motor or sensation losses or instability can also be associated with this type. Usually imaging is required to figure out what is going on in the brain. This occurs due to an injury to the balance centre in central nervous system i.e. in the brain (specifically in the brain stem or the back of the brain)
If the patient is having peripheral vertigo, they can have horizontal and fatigable nystagmus. Sometimes when you have Benign Paroxysmal Positional vertigo (BPPV) you may also experience torsional nystagmus. Peripheral vertigo occurs when there is problem or damage to the centre in the inner ear that controls balance. This area is called as vestibular labyrinth. The damage incurred may also involve vestibular nerve that connects the inner ear with the brain stem.
Diagnosis and Treatment
It’s crucial to get proper diagnosis of vertigo done since there can be many underlying causes which may have be left untreated and have gone undiagnosed resulting into severe vertigo disorders. After getting the patient’s medical history, a medical professional performs a physical examination that often involves a full neurologic exam to evaluate brain function and determine whether the vertigo is due to central or peripheral causes. Following are some diagnostics tests that are performed to rule out vertigo.
Head Movement Test
Eye Motion Test
Rotating Chair Test
Along with these tests, some cases may even need an X-ray, CT brain or MRI for better clarity on the location of the disorder
If there’s any underlying cause to the disorder, then that needs to be treated first in order to get rid of vertigo on a more micro level. There are various treatments available for this and some suggested treatments can be:
Oral medications like Antihistamines and Anticholinergics drugs (not to be taken without expert guidance)
Balance Therapy i.e. practising balance exercises like marching at one place, Romberg exercise etc.
Head Position Maneuvers – there are two maneuvers called as Epley Maneuver & Semont Maneuver which are performed under the guidance of the expert to help treat vertigo
Surgical Intervention is done in case there is any tumor or infection causing vertigo
Vertigo can happen to anyone, and there is no way to prevent the first episode. Because vertigo can be associated with an intense sense of imbalance, it is important to avoid situations in which a fall could cause significant harm, like climbing a ladder or working on a slanted roof. Call our doctor (neurologist) if you have an episode of vertigo, especially if it is associated with headache and significant coordination problems. We can help!
If you wish to speak to our doctor for a second opinion regarding this disorder, don’t hesitate to call us directly on +919823440640 or fill in a request ‘here‘ for us to get in touch with you.