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Myocardial Infarction


Overview

This condition is commonly known to everybody as Heart Attack. This is an acute condition and occurs when the blood supplying arteries to the heart or to a part of it gets blocked suddenly. These blocked arteries are called Atherosclerotic arteries which can get blocked due to plaque of cholesterol, calcium and other components of blood. This condition is irreversible as the heart muscles die to the prolonged lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscles.

Types

There are three main types of Myocardial Infarction
  • STEMI (ST-segment elevated Myocardial Infarction)

This is also called a major heart attack as in the condition the arteries supplying blood get blocked completely.

  • NSTEMI (Non-ST-segment elevated Myocardial Infarction)

In this condition, the affected blood supplying artery gets blocked partially.

  • CAS (Coronary Artery Spasm) or Silent Heart Attack

In this case there occurs spam of coronary artery and is not much serious condition. But can surely increase the risk of future attacks.



Signs & Symptoms

  • Chest pain
  • Profuse Sweating
  • Pain in the neck, shoulder, hands, and jaw
  • Heartburn
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Feeling of fatigue


Causes Or Risk Factors

  • Obesity
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Excessive smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • High blood cholesterol levels

Diagnostic Tools

  • ECG (Electrocardiogram)
  • Cardiac Biomarkers like Trop N, Trop T, CK – MB
  • Cardiac Doppler

Treatment

  • Lifestyle modification
  • Oral medication
  •  Fibrinolysis
  • PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention)

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