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Cardiomyopathy


Overview

When the muscles of the heart gets enlarged or thickened, the condition is termed as Cardiomyopathy. This enlargement or thickening of muscles makes them stiff compromising the heart’s capacity of pumping blood causing overloading of lungs with blood or heart failure or arrhythmias.

Types

⦁ Dilated Cardiomyopathy 
The condition where complete heart enlarges is called Dilated Cardiomyopathy

⦁ Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
The condition in which a portion of the hearts gets thick and stiff is called Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

⦁ Restrictive Cardiomyopathy 
In this condition, the heart walls become rigid without any thickening which causes the heart walls to stretch less and fill in blood effectively.

⦁ Stress Cardiomyopathy 
The condition where a portion of heart muscles gets a temporary weakness all of a sudden due to emotional stress or anxiety is called Stress Cardiomyopathy or Broken Heart Syndrome.

  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia 
    This happens due to genetic defects of part of heart muscles called demosomes.

Signs & Symptoms

⦁ Shortness of breath
⦁ Excessive fatigue
⦁ Swelling on legs
⦁ Irregular heartbeats
⦁ Bloating
⦁ Cough in lying position
⦁ Chest discomfort



Causes Or Risk Factors

⦁ Obesity
⦁ Alcohol abuse
⦁ Long term Hypertension
⦁ Heart tissue damage post Heart Attack
⦁ Abnormalities of heart valves
⦁ Coronary Artery Diseases
⦁ Diabetes
⦁ Hyperthyroidism
⦁ Drugs toxicity
⦁ Iron builds up in heart muscles
⦁ Chronic rapid heartbeats or Tachycardia


Diagnostic Tools

⦁ Physical examination
⦁ Blood tests
⦁ ECG (Electrocardiogram)
⦁ Cardiac Doppler
⦁ Stress Test
⦁ Cardiac MRI
⦁ Cardiac CT scan
⦁ Chest X-ray


Treatment

⦁ Lifestyle modification
⦁ Oral medication
⦁ Implantation of devices
⦁ Surgical Corrections


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